Communities in and around the forest always interact and use the resources to satisfy their daily needs for survival. Forest resources obtained by the community are used to satisfy family needs, and one is an additional family income. This study aimed at determining the contribution of Mutis Timau protected forest to community income. In order to knowing the income that the community earns from the forest, a survey was conducted in nine villages located in and around Mutis Timau protected forest that started from January to June 2018. Nine villages were purposively selected that Mutis Timau protected forest area is administratively under those villages whose communities directly interact with the protected forest. The technique of collecting data was a questionnaire with 353 respondents selected proportionally in each village. Also, observation and literature study were adopted. The data were descriptively analyzed. The results denote that Mutis Timau protected forest provide income to the community through non-timber forest products of IDR1,637,510,566 year-1 of the total income of IDR45,260,686,262 year-1. Community income earned from Mutis Timau protected forest is very low (3.62%) compared to the income gained from horticultural food crops (66.29%) and livestock (30.09%). The income is directly earned from the sale of non-timber forest products to the consumers without having product processes in particular for hunting wild animals, fungus, tubers, and honey. Honey delivers higher income besides other non-timber forest products, such as hunting wild animals, fungus, and tubers.
Andayani, W. (2005). Ekonomi pengelolaan hutan rakyat: Aspek kajian pola usaha tani dan pemasaran kayu rakyat, in Kelangkaan air: Mitos sosial dan kiat ekonomi rakyat. Yogyakarta: Debut Press.
Angelsen, A., Jagger, P., Babigumira, R., Belcher, B., & Wunder, S. (2014). Environmental income and rural livelihoods: A global-comparative analysis. World Development, 64, 1228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.03.006
Asfaw, A., Lemenih, M., Kassa, H., & Ewnetu, Z. (2013). Importance, determinants and gender dimensions of forest income in Eastern Highlands of Ethiopia: The case of communities around Jelo Afromontane Forest. Forest Policy and Economics, 28, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2013.01.005
Belcher, B., & Perez, M. R. (2005). Global patterns and trends in the use and management of commercial NTFPs : Implications for livelihoods and conservation. World Development, 33(9), 1435–1452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2004.10.007
Chen, H., Zhu, T., Krott, M., & Maddox, D. (2013). Community forestry management and livelihood development in Northwest China: Integration of governance, project design, and community participation. Regional Environmental Change, 13, 67–75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-012-0316-3
Dako, F. X., Purwanto, R. H., Faida, L. R. W., & Sumardi. (2018). Firewood and carpentry wood contribution to the communities of Mutis Timau Protected Forest, Timor Island. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 24, 166–174. https://doi.org/10.7226/jtfm.24.3.166
Dako, F. X., Purwanto, R. H., Faida, L. R. W., & Sumardi. (2019). Community’s social capital in the management of Mutis Timau Protected Forest in Timor Island, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 20(8), 2177–2186. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d200811
Das, N. (2010). Incidence of forest income on reduction of inequality: Evidence from forest dependent households in milieu of joint forest management. Ecological Economics, 69(8), 1617–1625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.03.003
Dewi, I. N., Awang, S. A., Andayani, W., & Suryanto, P. (2018). Karakteristik petani dan kontribusi hutan kemasyarakatan (HKm) terhadap pendapatan petani di Kulon Progo. Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan, 12, 86–98.
Diniyati, D., & Achmad, B. (2015). Kontribusi pendapatan hasil hutan bukan kayu pada usaha hutan rakyat pola agroforestri di Kabupaten Tasikmalaya. Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan, 9(1).
Jagger, P., Luckert, M. M. K., & Duchelle, A. M. Y. E. (2014). Tenure and forest income: Observations from a global study on forests and poverty. World Development, 64, S43–S55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.03.004
Júnior, P. C. B., Guimarães, D. A., & Pendu, Y. L. (2010). Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: A case study. International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation, 58(3), 1079–1088. https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v58i2.5264
Kaoma, H., & Shackleton, C. M. (2015). The direct-use value of urban tree non-timber forest products to household income in poorer suburbs in South African towns. Forest Policy and Economics, 61, 104112. https//doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2015.08.005
Kar, S. P., & Jacobson, M. G. (2012). NTFP income contribution to household economy and related socio-economic factors: Lessons from Bangladesh. Forest Policy and Economics, 14(1), 136–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2011.08.003
Liu, J., Ouyang, Z., & Miao, H. (2010). Environmental attitudes of stakeholders and their perceptions regarding protected area-community conflicts: A case study in China. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(11), 2254–2262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.06.007
Liu, D., Cheng, H., Bussmann, R. W., Guo, Z., Liu, B., & Long, C. (2018). An ethnobotanical survey of edible fungi in Chuxiong City, Yunnan, China. Journal of Etnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 14(42), 1–10.
Loaiza, T., Nehren, U., & Gerold, G. (2015). REDD and incentives: An analysis of income generation in forest-dependent communities of the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador. Applied Geography, 62, 225–236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2015.04.020
Mahapatra, K. A., Tewari, D. D., & Baboo, B. (2015). Displacement, deprivation and development: The impact of relocation on income and livelihood of tribes in Similipal Tiger and Biosphere Reserve, India. Environmental Management, 56(2), 420432. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-015-0507-z
Mahmood, S., & Zaleha, M. N. (2013). Human capital inequality and income inequality: Developing countries. Pertanika Journal Social Sciences and Humanities, 21, 189–200.
Mazunda, J., & Shively, G. (2015). Measuring the forest and income impacts of forest user group participation under Malawi’s forest co-management program. Ecological Economics, 119, 262–273. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2015.09.016
Mcelwee, P. D. (2010). Resource use among rural agricultural households near protected areas in Vietnam: The social costs of conservation and implications for enforcement. Enviromental Management, 45, 113–131. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-009-9394-5
[MoEF] Ministry of Enviroment and Forestry. (2016). Peraturan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Nomor: P.83/MENLHK/SETJEN/KUM.1/10/2016 tentang Perhutanan Sosial. Jakarta: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan.
Morsello, C., Ruiz-Mallen, I., Diaz, M. D. M., & Reyes-Garcia, V. (2012). The effects of processing non-timber forest products and trade partnerships on people’s well-being and forest conservation in Amazonian societies. Plos One, 7(8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043055
Mutenje, M. J., Ortmann, G. F., & Ferrer, S. R.D. (2011). Extraction of non-timber forest products as a coping strategy for HIV/AIDS-afflicted rural households in South-eastern Zumbabwe. African Journal of AIDS Research, 10(3), 37–41. https://doi.org/10.2989/16085906.2011.626285
Nazir. (2003). Metode penelitian. Jakarta: Ghalia Indonesia Press.
Norini, H., & Fadli, S. A. (2007). The importance of Ayer Hitam Forest Reserve (AHFR), Puchong, Selangor to the Temuan ethnic subgroup. Pertanika Journal Tropical Science, 30(2), 97–107.
Oli, B. N., Treue, T., & Smith-Hall, C. (2016). The relative importance of community forests, government forests, and private forests for household-level incomes in the middle hills of Nepal. Forest Policy and Economics, 70, 155–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2016.06.026
Petriello, M. A., & Stronza, A. L. (2019). Campesino hunting and conservation in Latin America. Conservation Biology, 34(2), 338353. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13396
Rahut, D. B., Ali, A., & Behera, B. (2015). Household participation and effects of community forest management on income and poverty levels: Empirical evidence from Bhutan. Forest Policy and Economics, 6, 2029. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2015.06.006
Roe, J. L., & Naughton-treves, L. (2014). Effects of a policy-induced income shock on forest-dependent households in the Peruvian Amazon. Ecological Economics, 97, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.10.017
Senoadji, G. (2009). Kontribusi hutan lindung terhadap pendapatan masyarakat desa di sekitarnya: Studi kasus di Desa Air Lanang Bengkulu. Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan, 16(l), 12–22.
Sevilla, C. G., Tuwu A., & Syah, A. (1993). Pengantar metode penelitian. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia Press.
Simon, H. (2010). Dinamika hutan rakyat di Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar Press.
Ticktin, T. (2004). The ecological implications of harvesting non-timber forest products. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 11–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2004.00859.x
Turjaman, M., Tamai, Y., Santoso, E., Osaki, M., & Tawaraya, K. (2006). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased early growth of two non-timber forest product species Dyera polyphylla and Aquilaria filaria under greenhouse conditions. Mycorrhiza, 16, 459–464. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-006-0059-4
Uprety, Y., Poudel, R. C., Gurung, J., Chettri, N., & Chaudhary, R. P. (2016). Traditional use and management of NTFPs in Kangchenjunga landscape: Implications for conservation and livelihoods. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 12(19), 1–59. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-016-0089-8
Vedeld, P., Angelsen, A., Bojö, J., Sjaastad, E., & Kobugabe, G. (2007). Forest environmental incomes and the rural poor. Forest Policy and Economics, 9, 869–879. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2006.05.008
Worku, A., Pretzsch, J., Kassa, H., & Auch, E. (2014). The significance of dry forest income for livelihood resilience: The case of the pastoralists and agro-pastoralists in the drylands of South Eastern Ethiopia. Forest Policy and Economics, 41, 51–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2014.01.001
Wulandari, C., & Kurniasih, H. 2019. Community preferences for social forestry facilitation programming in Lampung, Indonesia. Forest and Society, 3, 114–132.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika is an open access journal which means that all contents is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.