• Muhammad Andre Nugraha Department of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB University)
  • Neviaty P. Zamani Department of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences- IPB University, Bogor
  • Hawis H. Madduppa Department of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences- IPB University, Bogor
Keywords: coral mortality, cyanosponge, invasive, seasonal variation


Terpios hoshinota is a cyanosponge encrusted on the substrate in coral reefs that may cause mass mortality on the infested corals. This research was conducted to investigate the magnitude of damage level of corals due to the T. hoshinota outbreaks by assessing its growth rate, spatiotemporal variation, and prevalence between two sites in Seribu Islands. Four-time observation (T0-T3) in over 18 months (2016-2017) was conducted to see the growth level of sponge using a permanently quadratic photo transect method of 5x5 m (250.000cm2). The total coverage area of sponge on study site in the T0 was 65.252cm2 and becomes 81.066cm2 in T3. The highest level occurred on T2 of 2.051cm2/months in Dapur Island (the closest to Jakarta) and 483cm2/months in the Belanda Island (the further site). The highest sponge growth rate occurred on T1-T2 during transitional season from rainy to dry. The lowest growth rate was observed on T3 during transitional season from dry to rainy. In general, prevalence percentage was higher in Belanda Island than in Dapur Island. This study showed a persistence invasion of encrusting T. hoshinota on coral reef ecosystem that may overcome the function and role of associated organisms.


Download data is not yet available.


Averts, L.A.M. 2000. Dynamics behind standoff interactions in three reef sponge species and the coral Montastrea cavernosa. Marine Ecology, 21(3-4): 191-204.

Burke, L., K. Reytar, M. Spalding, & A. Perry. 2012. Reefs at Risk Revisited in the Coral Triangle. World Resources Institute (WRI). in: Menengok Kembali Terumbu Karang yang Terancam di Segitiga Terumbu Karang (TERANGI). Indonesia. 90 p.

Chornesky, E.A. 1989. Repeated reversals during spatial competition between corals. Ecology, 70(4): 843-855.

Cleary, D.F.R., L. DeVantier, Giyanto, L. Vail, P. Manto, N. de Voogd, P.G. Rachello-Dolmen, Y. Tuti, A. Budiyanto, J. Wolstenholme, B.W. Hoeksema, & Suharsono. 2008. Relating variation in species composition to environmental variables: a multi-taxon study in an Indonesian coral reef complex. Aquat. Sci., 70: 419-431.

Costantino, V., E. Fattorusso, C. Imperatore, A. Mangoni, & R. Teta. 2008. Terpioside from the Marine Sponge Terpios sp., the First Glycosphingolipid Having anL-Fucofuranose Unit. European J. of Organic Chemistry, (12): 2130-2134.

De Voogd, N.J., D.F.R. Cleary, & F. Dekker. 2013. The coral-killing sponge Terpios hoshinota invades Indonesia. Coral Reefs, 32: 755.

Diaz, M.C. & K. Rutzler. 2001. Sponges: an essential component of Caribbean coral reefs. Bulletin of Marine Science, Sci, 69(2): 535–546.

Edinger, E.N., J. Jompa, G.V. Limmon, W. Wijadmoko, & M.J. Risk. 1998. Reef degradation and coral biodiversity in indonesia: effects of land-based pollution, destructive fishing practices and changes ovar time. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36(8): 617-630.

Elliott, J., M. Petterson, N. Summers, C. Miternique, E. Montocchio, & E. Vitry. 2016. How does the proliferation of the coral-killing sponge Terpios hoshinota affect benthic community structure on coral reefs?. Coral Reefs, 35(3): 1083-1095.

Elliott, J., M. Petterson, E. Vitry, N. Summers, & C. Miternique. 2015. Morphological plasticity allows coral to actively overgrow the aggressive sponge Terpios hoshinota (Mauritius, Southwestern Indian Ocean). Marine Biodiversity, 46: 489-493.

English, S., C. Wilkinson, & V. Baker. 1997. Survey Manual for Tropical Marine Resources (2nd Edition). Australia: Australian Institute of Marine Science. Australia. 390 p.

Esther, V.D.E., B.W. Hoeksema, & N.J. De Voogd. 2015. Abundance and genetic variation of the coral-killing cyanobacteriosponge Terpios hoshinota in the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia. J. of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 96(2): 453-463.

Estradivari, Idris, & M. Syahrir. 2009. Study of Structure of Hard Coral Communities to Thousands of 2005 & 2007. Foundation TERANGI, Jakarta. 102: 29-39 pp.

Fadila & Idris. 2009. Comparison of biennial percentage of coral cover in the Thousand Islands (2003, 2005 and 2007), Foundation TERANGI, Jakarta. 102: 23-28 pp.

Fonnegra, C.A., L. Castellanos, S. Zea, C. Duque, J. Rodrı´guez, & C. Jim’enez. 2008. Clionapyrrolidine A-A Metabolite from the Encrusting and Excavating Sponge Cliona tenuis that Kills Coral Tissue upon Contact. J. Chem Ecol., 34(12): 1565-1574.

Fujii, T., S. Keshavmurthy, W. Zhou, E. Hirose, C.A. Chen, & J.D. Reimer. 2011. Coral-killing cyanobacterio-sponge (Terpios hoshinota) on the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs, 30: 483.

Giyanto. 2013. Underwater photo transect method for assessing the condition of coral reefs. Oseana, XXXVIII(1): 47-61.

Giyanto & Soekarno. 1997. Comparison of coral reef communities at two depths and four different zones on the Thousand Islands, Jakarta. Oceanology and Limnology Bulletin in Indonesia. 30: 33-51 pp.

Gomez, E.D., P.M. Alino, H.T. Yap & W.Y. Licuanan. 1994. A review of the status of Philipine reefs. Marine Polution Bulletin, 29(1-3): 62-68.

Hadi, T.A., M. Abrar, Giyanto, B. Prayudha, O. Johan, A. Budiyanto, A.R. Dzumalek, L.A. Alifatri, S. Sulha, & Suharsono. 2020. The Status of Indonesian Coral Reefs 2019. Center for Oceanographic Research (LIPI). 89 p.

Hirose, E. & A. Murakami. 2011. Microscopic anatomy and pigment characterization of coral-encrusting black sponge with cyanobacterial symbiont, Terpios hoshinota. Zoological Science, 28: 199-205.

Hoeksema, B.W., Z. Waheed, & N.J. de Voogd. 2014. Partial mortality in corals overgrown by the sponge Terpios hoshinota at Tioman Island, Peninsular Malaysia (South China Sea). Bulletin of Marine Science, 90(4): 989-990.

Hsu, C.M., J.T. Wang, & Chen. 2013. Larval release and rapid settlement of the coral-killing sponge, Terpios hoshinota, at Green Island. Taiwan. Marine Biodiversity, 43: 259-260.

Johan, O. 2010. Cause, impact and management of coral disease on coral reefs ecosystem. Media Akuakultur, Indonesian. 5(2): 144-152.

Liao, M.H., S.L. Tang, C.H. Hsu, K.C. Wen, W. Hanry, W.M. Chen, J.T. Wang, P.J. Meng, W.H. Twan, C.K. Lu, C.F. Dai, K. Soong, & C.A. Chen. 2007. The black disease of reef-building corals at Green Island, Taiwan-Outbreak of a Cyanobacteriosponge, Terpios hoshinota (Suberitidae; Hadromerida). Zoological studies, 46(4): 520.

Lisanne, A.M.A. 2000. Dynamics behind standoff interactions in three reef sponge species and the coral Montastraea cavernosa. Marine Ecology, 21: 191-204.

Madduppa, H., P.J. Schupp, M.R. Faisal, M.Y. Sastria, & C. Thoms. 2017. Persistent outbreaks of the “black disease” sponge Terpios hoshinota in Indonesian coral reefs. Marine Biodiversity, 47: 149-151.

Montano, S., W.H. Chou, C.A. Chen, P. Galli, & J.D. Reimer. 2015. First record of the coral-killing sponge Terpios hoshinota in the Maldives and Indian Ocean. Bulletin of Marine Science. 91: 97-98.

Mujiyani., D. Hidayanti, L. Rachmawati, Tonisoetopo, G.B. Aji, & R. Cahyadi. 2001. Small island management and community participation, case study in the Thousand Islands, DKI Jakarta. Population Research Center of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (PPK-LIPI 2001, Jakarta. 128 p.

Nozawa, Y., Y.S. Huang, & E. Hirose. 2016. Seasonality and lunar periodicity in the sexual reproduction of the coral-killing sponge, Terpios hoshinota. Coral Reefs, 35: 1071-1081.

Pawlik, J.R., L. Steindler, T.P. Henkel, S. Beer, & M. Ilan. 2007. Chemical warfare on coral reefs: sponge metabolites differentially affect coral symbiosis in situ. Limnol Oceanography, 52(2): 907-911.

Plucer, R.G. 1987. The effect of substratum on the growth of Terpios, an encrusting sponge which kills corals. Coral Reefs, 5: 197-200.

Porter, J.W. & N.M. Targett. 1988. Allelochemical interactions between sponges and corals. Biological Bulletin, 175(2): 230-239.

Raj, K.D., M.S. Bharath, G. Mathews, G.S. Aeby, & J.K.P. Edward. 2018. Coral-killing sponge Terpios hoshinota invades the corals of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast India. Current Science. 114(5): 1117-1119.

Raymundo, L.J., C.S. Couch, & C.D. Harvell. 2008. Coral disease handbook: guidelines for assessment, monitoring and managment. Coral Reef Targeted Research and Capacity Building for Management Program. The University of Queensland. Australia. 124 p.

Reimer, J.D., M. Mizuyama, M. Nakano, T. Fujii, & E. Hirose. 2011. Current status of the distribution of the coral-encrusting cyanobacteriosponge Terpios hoshinota in southern Japan. Galaxea, J. of Coral Reef Studies, 13: 35-44.

Rossi, G., S. Montori, C. Cerrano, & B. Calcinai. 2015. The coral killing sponge Chalinula nematifera (Porifera: Haplosclerida) along the eastern coast of Sulawesi Island (Indonesia). Italian J. Zoology, 82(1): 143-148.

Roctim, R.D., C.R. Sreeraj, M. Gopi, K.R. Abhilash, S.V. Deepak, R. Purvaja, & R. Ramesh. 2019. Incursion of the killer sponge Terpios hoshinota Rützler & Muzik, 1993 on the coral reefs of the Lakshadweep archipelago, Arabian Sea. J. of Threatened Taxa, 12(14): 17009–17013.

Rutzler, K. & K.M. Muzik. 1993. Terpios hoshinota, a new cyanobacteriosponge threatening Pacific reefs. Scientia Marina, 57(4): 395-403.

Shi, Q., G.H. Liu, H.Q. Yan, & H.L. Zhang. 2012. Black Disease (Terpios hoshinota): A probable cause for the rapid coral mortality at the northern reef of Yongxing Island in the South China Sea. AMBIO. 41(5): 446-455.

Soong, K., S.L. Yang, & C.A. Chen. 2009. A novel dispersal mechanism of a coral-threatening sponge, Terpios hoshinota (Suberitidae, Porifera). Zoological Studies. 48(5): 596.

Subhan, B., H. Madduppa, D. Arafat, & D. Soedharma. 2014. Can coral transplantation improve coral reef ecosystems. J. Risalah Kebijakan Pertanian dan Lingkungan, 1(3): 159-164.

Subhan, B., F. Rahmawati, D. Arafat, & N.A. Bayu. 2011. Coral Health Condition of Family Fungiidae on Pramuka Island, Seribu Island. J. Teknologi Perikanan dan Kelautan, 2(1): 41-50.

Sutanto, D. 2014. Six islands in Jakarta were lost due to abrasion and sand theft. 22:39.

Tang, S.N., M.J. Hong, M.H. Liao, W.N. Jane, P.W. Chiang, C.B. Chen, & C.A. Chen. 2011. Bacteria associated with an encrusting sponge (Terpios hoshinota) and the corals partially covered by the sponge. Environmental Microbiology, 13(5): 1179-1191.

Teruya, T., S. Nakagawa, T. Koyama, H. Arimoto, M. Kita, & D. Uemura. 2004. Nakiterpiosin and nakiterpiosinone, novel cytotoxic C-nor-D-homosteroids from the Okinawan sponge Terpios hoshinota. Tetrahedron, 60: 6989-6993.

Teruya, T., K. Suenaga, T. Koyama, Y. Nakano, & D.J. Uemura. 2001. Arachidonic acid and α-linolenic acid, feeding attractants for the crown-of-thorns sea star Acanthaster planci, from the sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus. J. of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 266: 123-134.

Thinesh, T., R. Meenatchi, R. Pasiyappazham, J. Polpass, S. Muthamizh, K. Seghal, & S. Joseph. 2017a. Short-term in situ shading effectively mitigates linear progression of coral-killing sponge Terpios hoshinota, Plos One, 12(10): e0187004.

Thinesh, T., G. Mathews, K.D. Raj, & J.K.P. Edward. 2017b. Outbreaks of Acropora white syndrome and Terpios sponge overgrowth combined with coralmortality in Palk Bay, southeast coast of India. Dis. Aquat. Org, (126): 63-70.

Tuti, H.Y., Suharsono, Giyanto, & R. Manogar. 2010. Effect of turbidity on the coral reef ecosystem in the Thousand Islands. Final report of the LIPI researcher and engineer incentive program in 2010. P20, LIPI. Jakarta. 37 p.

Utami, R.T., N.P. Zamani, & H. Madduppa. 2018. Molecular identification, abundance and distribution of the coral-killing sponge Terpios hoshinota in Bengkulu and Seribu Islands, Indonesia. Biodiversitas J. of Biological Diversity, 19(3): 2238-2246.

Wang, J.T., Y.Y. Chen, P.J. Meng, Y.H. Sune, C.M. Hsu, K.Y. Wei, & C.A. Chen. 2012. Diverse Interactions between Corals and the Coral-Killing Sponge, Terpios hoshinota (Suberitidae: Hadromerida). Zoological Studies, 51(2): 150-159.

Wang, J.T., C.M. Hsu, C.Y. Kuo, P.J. Meng, S.J. Kao, & C.A. Chen. 2015. Physiological out performance at the Morphologically-Transformed Edge of the Cyanobacteriosponge Terpios hoshinota (Suberitidae: Hadromerida) when Confronting Opponent Corals. Plos ONE, 10(6): e0131509.

Wilkinson, C. 2004. Status of coral reefs of the world:2004. global coral reef monitoring network. Australian, (2): 368 p.

Wilkinson, C. 2008. Status of Coral Reefs of The World: 2008. Australian Institute of Marine Science. Australia. 296 p.

Yamaguchi, M. 1986. Introduction to the study of coral reefs 4 Coral-reef sponges (1) Sponges as destroyers of reef-building corals. Japanese. 8: 88-92 pp.

Zamani, N.P. & H. Madduppa. 2011. A standard criteria for assessing the health of coral reefs: implication for management and conservation. J. of Indonesia Coral Reefs, 1(2): 137-146.